A technical package of five essential interventions with key elements to strengthen country health data and information systems and enable governments to track progress towards the health-related SDGs and national and subnational priorities.

What is the SCORE for Health Data Technical Package? What does it include, and what makes it unique from other similar resources? Find answers to these questions and more, including how to get in touch with specific comments or feedback.

Find out more about SCORE related activities and initiatives in WHO's Global Programme of Work and selected partnerships.

Population-based assessments and surveillance systems are universally indispensable to identify risks for infectious diseases like COVID-19. They are also an important tool to measure social determinants not always captured in routine health facility monitoring.

Novel methods like mobile phone surveys are also reducing the risk of COVID-19 and other infectious disease transmission and are an important tool to measure inequalities like access to and quality of care. Country capacity for systematic data collection is vital for both routine progress reporting and event-based surveillance.








Survey populations and health risks


System of regular population-based health surveys

  • A system of regular and comprehensive population health surveys that meets international standards.


Surveillance of public health threats

  • Completeness and timeliness of weekly reporting of notifiable conditions (%).
  • Indicator and event-based surveillance system(s) in place based on International Health Regulations standards.


Regular population census

  • Census conducted in last 10 years in line with international standards with population projections for subnational units.


Accurately counting births and deaths is a cornerstone of every health system. This includes strategies to reliably and continuously track fertility rates, mortality rates, cause-of-death distribution and life expectancy.

Gaps in cause of death and mortality reporting often occur due to late registration of deaths outside healthcare facilities. We must take a coordinated approach to ensure every birth and death event is properly counted, notified and registered.








Count births, deaths and causes of death


Full birth and death registration

  • Completeness of birth registration (%)
  • Completeness of death registration (%)
  • Core attributes of a functional CRVS in place to generate vital statistics


Certification and reporting of causes of death

  • Completeness of deaths with cause of death reported to national authorities and/or international institutions (%).
  • Quality of cause-of-death data (% of cause of death with ill-defined or unknown causes of mortality).
  • Core attributes of a functional system to generate cause-of-death statistics.


Regular, reliable data from health facilities and the resource systems that support them are central to ensuring availability and quality of health services.

Health facility data support clinical management of patients, disease monitoring, facility management, health sector planning, and monitoring of service coverage and performance. In the wake of COVID-19, these data will be invaluable to assess the impact on health workforce capacity and essential services to improve preparedness going forward.







Optimize health service data


Routine facility reporting system with patient monitoring

  • Availability of annual statistics for selected indicators derived  from facility data.
  • Functional facility/patient reporting system in place based on key criteria.


Regular system to monitor service availability, quality and effectiveness

  • Well established system to independently monitor health services.


Health service resources: health financing and health workforce

  • Availability of latest data on national health expenditure.
  • Availability of data on health workforce density and distribution updated annually.
  • National human resources health information system is in place and functional.


Reviewing population and institution-based data is important for strategic planning and priority-setting. This intervention underscores the need for – and capacity of – countries to conduct regular, data-driven analytical reviews using the highest possible data standards to make informed decisions, take corrective action, and allocate resources.

This intervention also indicates the importance of national capacity for health statistics generation, synthesis and analysis. In-country collaboration and response post-COVID-19 will be an essential knowledge base for curating future plans and public health policies.





Review progress and performance


Regular analytical progress and performance reviews, with equity

  • High quality analytical report on progress and performance of health sector strategy/plan and produced annually.


Institutional capacity for analysis and learning

  • Institutional capacity in data analysis at national and subnational level.


Translating data into effective use by multiple stakeholders is a final and critical step in the data lifecycle. It ensures that governments are accountable for health system performance and that every country can adequately define, measure and compile the data required to monitor progress

Capacity-building and technical and financial resource alignment is also necessary to enable data use. This includes transparent processes for data reporting, storage and dissemination at all levels and quality assurance for data methods. It also includes visualizations to translate data into actionable information for the general public adapted to specific contexts and local communities.



Enable data use for policy and action


Data and evidence drive policy and planning

  • National health plan and policies are based on data and evidence.


Data access and sharing

  • Health statistics are publicly available.


Strong country-led governance of data

  • National monitoring and evaluation (M&E) is based on standards.
  • National digital health/e-health strategy is based on standards.
  • Foundational elements to promote data use and access are present.