Tuberculosis: Public-private mix (PPM) for TB care and control

17 October 2015 | Q&A

PPM is the involvement of all health care providers - public and private as well as formal and informal - in the provision of TB care, in line with International Standards for TB Care for patients who have or are suspected of having tuberculosis.

PPM is needed when:

  • there is high utilization of the private sector and non-NTP public sector such as medical colleges, army, etc.
  • quality of care is poor in these facilities
  • low case detection
  • poor treatment outcomes
  • delay and high costs for patients.

PPM reduces malpractice by fostering evidence-based TB diagnosis and treatment in line with the International Standards for TB Care. This improves cure rates and reduces risks of drug resistance development. It also limits misdiagnosis of TB and unnecessary and often costly treatments.

PPM helps increase TB case detection and reduces diagnostic delays by involving all health care providers in timely referral ,diagnosis , ensures proper notification of all diagnosed cases and enrollment on appropriate treatment under programme guidelines. The engagement of private providers entails adequate training of these providers to ensure that the quality of their services is aligned with the International Standards for TB care. In addition evidence shows that private providers are often the first point of contact for health services. These providers (with adequate training) could play an important role in case detection and referral of patients to the public sector cutting down significantly on diagnostic delays.

PPM improves access to treatment by involving health care providers from whom the poor, marginalized and most vulnerable seek care. Often public health facilities are situated at a distance from the home or workplace of the patient, therefore access to these services involves transportation costs and loss of wages which are barriers in access to health care for disadvantaged populations. The involvement of all providers in PPM enhances access of closer-to-home health services for both men and women.In addition PPM ensures that proper notification and enrollment for appropriate treatment under programme guidelines of all diagnosed patients is carried out.

PPM reduces costs to patients by ensuring that treatment for TB is free of charge and all other costs are kept to a minimum. PPM can also reduce indirect costs for patients by providing services closer to their homes or workplace.

Women in many developing countries often have less power to make decisions on healthcare utilization. Additionally, public health facilities are not always easily accessible from their places of residence. The cost of transportation and the loss of income for both the patient and the guardian or escort are major inhibitors for women in access to public health care. Therefore in many cases they first approach the private sector for health services. PPM can ensure that women have access to good quality health care services close to their home.

PPM contributes towards completeness of epidemiological surveillance on TB when all care providers who diagnose and treat TB follow proper TB recording and reporting routines linked to national information systems.

All health care providers both private and public can play one or more important roles in TB control including: helping identify people with TB; prescribing treatment; acting as treatment supervisors; tracing treatment defaulters; providing information and spreading awareness, training and supervision of health care staff; and management of drug supplies and equipment.

Articles

2009

Pantoja A, Floyd K, Unnikrishnan KP, Suryavamshi JR, Padma MR, Lal SS, Uplekar M, Chauhan LS, Kumar P, Sahu S, Wares F, Lönnroth K. Economic evaluation of PPM-DOTS in Bangalore, south India. Part I: Profile and costs of TB patients. 2009 Jun; Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 13(6):698–704.

Pantoja A, Lönnroth K, Lal SS, Chauhan LS, Uplekar M, Padma MR, Unnikrishnan KP, Rajesh J, Kumar P, Sahu S, Wares F, Floyd K. Economic evaluation of PPM-DOTS in Bangalore, south India. Part II: Cost and cost-effectiveness of intensified efforts. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2009 Jun; 13(6):705–712.

Lönnroth K, Jaramillo E, Williams BG, Dye C, Raviglione M. Drivers of tuberculosis epidemics: The role of risk factors and social determinants. Soc Sci Med.2009 Jun;68(12):2240-6. EPUB 2009 Apr 23. Abstract

Lönnroth K, Holtz TH, Cobelens F, Chua J, van Leth F, Tupasi T, Williams B. Inclusion of information on risk factors, socio-economic status and health seeking in a tuberculosis prevalence survey. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2009 Feb;13(2):171-6. Abstract

Yesudian HM, Raviglione MR, World Tuberculosis Day 2009: Partnership for TB care. Indian J Med Res 129, March 2009, pp 215-218. Article

2008

Uplekar M, Stopping tuberculosis: time to turn urgent attention to hospitals. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2008 Sep; 12 (9):986.Abstract

Kazmi T, De Costa A, Lönnroth K, Uplekar M, Diwan VK. PPM – ‘Public-private’ or ‘Private-public’ mix? The case of Ujjain district, India. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2008 Nov;12(11):1333-5. Abstract

Lönnroth K, Raviglione M. Global Epidemiology of Tuberculosis: Prospects for Control. Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2008; 29: 481-491Abstract

2007

Maher D, Dye C, Floyd K, Pantoja A, Lonnroth K, Reid A et al, Planning to improve global health: the next decade of tuberculosis control.Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2007;85(5):341-7. Abstract

Uplekar M and Raviglione M, The "vertical-horizontal" debates: time for the pendulum to rest (in peace)? Bull World Health Organ. 2007 May ;85 (5):413-7. Abstract

Lönnroth K, Tin-Aung, Win-Maung, Kluge H, Uplekar M. Social franchising of TB care through private general practitioners in Myanmar - an assessment of access, quality of care, equity, and financial protection. Health Policy and Planning 2007 22(3):156-166 Abstract

Uplekar M, Lönnroth K. MDR and XDR: price of delaying engagement with all care providers for control of TB and TB/HIV. Trop Med Int Health 2007 Apr;12(4):273-274 Abstract

2006

Dewan PK, Lal SS, Lönnroth K, Wares F, Uplekar M, Sahu S, Granich R, Chauhan LS. Public-Private Mix in India: Improving Tuberculosis Control Through Intersectoral Partnerships. BMJ 2006; 332: 574-8 Abstract

Floyd K, Arora VK, Murthy KJR, Lönnroth K, Singla N, Akbar Y, Zignol M, Uplekar M. Cost and cost-effectiveness of public and private sector collaboration in tuberculosis control: evidence from India. Bulletin of WHO 2006; 84: 437-45. Abstract

Salim MAH, Uplekar M, Declercq E, Aung M, Daru P, Lönnroth K. Turning liabilities into resources: the informal village doctors and TB control in Bangladesh. Bulletin of WHO 2006; 84: 479-84. Abstract

Maung M, Kluge H, Aye T, Maung W, Noe P, Zaw M, Jost S, Uplekar M, Lönnroth K. Private General Practitioners Contribute to TB Control in Myanmar - Evaluation of a Public-Private Mix Initiative in Mandalay Division. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2006; 10: 982-987 Abstract

Lönnroth K, Uplekar M, Blanc L. Hard gains through soft contracts - productive engagement of private providers in tuberculosis control. Bulletin of WHO 2006; 84: 876-83. Abstract

2005

Ambe G, Lönnroth K, Dholakia Y, Copreaux J, Zignol M, Borremans N, Uplekar M. Every provider counts!: Effects of a comprehensive public-private mix approach for TB control in a large metropolitan area in India. International Journal of TB and Lung Diseases, 2005; 9: 562-68. Abstract

2004

Lönnroth K, Uplekar M, Arora VK, Juvekar S, Lan NTN, Mvaniki D, Pathania V. Public-Private Mix for Improved TB Control – what makes it work? Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2004; 82: 580-86. Abstract

2003

Uplekar M. Involving private health care providers in delivery of TB care: global strategy. Tuberculosis 2003;83:156-164. Abstract

Uplekar M. Public-private mix for DOTS: demanding, but delay will only hamper TB control. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2003;7(12):1113-4. Abstract

2001

Uplekar M, Pathania V, Raviglione M. Private practitioners and public health: weak links in tuberculosis control. Lancet 2001;358(9285):912-6. Abstract

2000

Uplekar M. Private health care. Soc Sci Med 2000;51(6):897-904 Abstract

1999

Uplekar M. (1999). Involving the private medical sector in tuberculosis control. In Tuberculosis: An International Perspective (Porter, J.D.H. and Grange, J.M., eds.), Imperial College Press, London.

1998

Uplekar M, Juvekar S, Morankar S, Rangan S, Nunn P. Tuberculosis patients and practitioners in private clinics in India. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 1998;2:324-329. Abstract

Articles 2006 and onward

2011

Lal SS, Sahu S, Wares F, Lönnroth K, Chauhan LS, Uplekar M.Intensified scale-up of public-private mix: a systems approach to tuberculosis care and control in India.Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2011 Jan;15(1):97-104. Abstract

Akhtar, S.; Rozi, S.; White, F.; Hasan, R.Cohort analysis of directly observed treatment outcomes for tuberculosis patients in urban Pakistan. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. Volume 15, Number 1, January 2011 , pp. 90-96(7) Abstract

2010

Quelapio MI, Mira NR, Orillaza-Chi RB, Belen V, Muñez N, Belchez R, Egos GE, Evangelista M, Vianzon R, Tupasi TE.Responding to the multidrug-resistant tuberculosis crisis: mainstreaming programmatic management to the Philippine National Tuberculosis Programme.Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2010 Jun;14(6):751-7. Abstract

Probandari A, Lindholm L, Stenlund H, Utarini A, Hurtig AK.Missed opportunity for standardized diagnosis and treatment among adult Tuberculosis patients in hospitals involved in Public-Private Mix for Directly Observed Treatment Short-course Strategy in Indonesia: a cross-sectional study.BMC Health Serv Res. 2010 May 7;10(1):113. Abstract

Sutton BS.Evaluation of the public-private mix: how economics can contribute to tuberculosis control.Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2010 May;8(5):489-91. Free Article

2009

Gidado M, Ejembi CL.Tuberculosis case management and treatment outcome: Assessment of the effectiveness of public - private mix of tuberculosis programme in Kaduna state, Nigeria.Ann Afr Med. 2009 Jan-Mar;8(1):25-31. Abstract

Dagli CE, Cetin TA, Hamit A, Yilmaz P, Gurdal Y, Ekrem G, Levent S, Abdullah D, Nurhan K.A. multicentre study of doctors' approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis in Turkey.J Infect Dev Ctries. 2009 Jun 1;3(5):357-64. Abstract

Krishnan N, Ananthakrishnan R, Augustine S, Vijayalakshmi NK, Gopi PG, Kumaraswami V, Narayanan PR. Impact of advocacy on the tuberculosis management practices of private practitioners in Chennai City, India. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2009 Jan;13(1):112-8. Abstract

Ahmed J, Ahmed M, Laghari A, Lohana W, Ali S, Fatmi Z. Public private mix model in enhancing tuberculosis case detection in District Thatta, Sindh, Pakistan. J Pak Med Assoc. 2009 Feb;59(2):82-6. Abstract Aggarwal JK, Chugh B.DOTS expansion under the umbrella of IMA: success story continues along with early teething difficulties.J Indian Med Assoc. 2009 Jul;107(7):453-5. Abstract

Chengsorn N, Bloss E, Anekvorapong R, Anuwatnonthakate A, Wattanaamornkiat W, Komsakorn S, Moolphate S, Limsomboon P, Kaewsa-ard S, Nateniyom S, Kanphukiew A, Varma JK.Tuberculosis services and treatment outcomes in private and public health care facilities in Thailand, 2004-2006.Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2009 Jul;13(7):888-94. Abstract

Vandan N, Ali M, Prasad R, Kuroiwa C.Assessment of doctors' knowledge regarding tuberculosis management in Lucknow, India: a public-private sector comparison.Public Health. 2009 Jul;123(7):484-9. EPUB 2009 Jun 26. Abstract

2008

Lagrada LP, Uehara N, Kawahara K. Analysis of factors of treatment completion in dots health facilities in metro Manila, Philippines: a case-control study. Kekkaku. 2008 Dec;83(12):765-72. Abstract

Kelkar-Khambete A, Kielmann K, Pawar S, Porter J, Inamdar V, Datye A, Rangan S.India's Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme: looking beyond detection and cure.Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2008 Jan;12(1):87-92. Abstract

Storla DG, Yimer S, Bjune GA.A systematic review of delay in the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis. BMC Public Health. 2008 Jan 14;8:15. Abstract

Piryani RM, Kohli SC, Shrestha G, Rawat T.Tuberculosis diagnosed / managed at NGMC, Teaching Hospital, Kohalpur: a joint private-public effort.Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ). 2008 Jan-Mar;6(1):28-32. Abstract

Ten Asbroek AH, Bijlsma MW, Malla P, Shrestha B, Delnoij DM.The road to tuberculosis treatment in rural Nepal: A qualitative assessment of 26 journeys.BMC Health Serv Res. 2008 Jan 11;8:7. Abstract

2007

Chugh S. Involvement of IMA in tuberculosis control.J Indian Med Assoc. 2007 Apr;105(4):198, 212. Abstract

Ferroussier O,Kumar M. K. A,Dewan P. K,Nair P. K. J, Sahu S,Wares D. F, Laserson K, Wells C, Granich R,ChauhanL. S.Cost and cost-effectiveness of a public-private mix project in Kannur District, Kerala, India, 2001–2002.INT J TUBERC LUNG DIS 2007 11(7):755–761.Abstract

Varma J K , Wiriyakitjar D ,Nateniyom S,Anuwatnonthakate A,Monkongdee P,Sumnapan S, Akksilp S,Sattayawuthipong W,Charunsuntonsri P,Rienthong S,Yamada N,Akarasewi P,Wells C D, Tapperoa JW.Evaluating the potential impact of the new Global Plan to Stop TB: Thailand, 2004–2005.Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2007;85:586–592. Abstract

Mahendradhata Y, Utarini A,Lazuardi U, Boelaert M, Stuyft P.Private practitioners and tuberculosis case detection in Jogjakarta, Indonesia: actual role and potential.Tropical Medicine & International Health, Volume 12, Number 10, October 2007 , pp. 1218-1224(7) Abstract

Barr D A.Ethics in public health research: a research protocol to evaluate the effectiveness of public-private partnerships as a means to improve health and welfare systems worldwide.Am J Public Health. 2007 Jan;97(1):19-25. Abstract

Ardian M,Meokbun E,Siburian L,Malonda E, Waramori G,Penttinen P,Lempoy J,Kenangalem E,Tjitra E,Kelly P.M.A public-private partnership for TB control in Timika,Papua Province, Indonesia. INT J TUBERC LUNG DIS 2007 11(10):1101–1107.Abstract

Lönnroth K, Tin-Aung, Win-Maung, Kluge H, Uplekar M. Social franchising of TB care through private general practitioners in Myanmar - an assessment of access, quality of care, equity, and financial protection Health Policy and Planning (in press) Abstract

Uplekar M, Lönnroth K. MDR and XDR: price of delaying engagement with all care providers for control of TB and TB/HIV. Trop Med Int Health 2007 (In press) Abstract

Karki DK, Mirzoev TN, Green AT, Newell JN, Baral SC. Costs of a successful public-private partnership for TB control in an urban setting in Nepal. BMC Public Health. 2007 May 18;7:84. Abstract

Mahendradhata Y, Lambert ML, Boelaert M, Van der Stuyft P. Editorial: Engaging the private sector for tuberculosis control: much advocacy on a meagre evidence base. Trop Med Int Health. 2007 Feb 5 Abstract

Irawati SR, Basri C, Arias MS, Prihatini S, Rintiswati N, Voskens J, Kimerling ME. Hospital DOTS linkage in indonesia: a model for DOTS expansion into government and private hospitals. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2007 Jan;11(1):33-9. Abstract

Selvam JM, Wares F, Perumal M, Gopi PG, Sudha G, Chandrasekaran V, Santha T. Health-seeking behaviour of new smear-positive TB patients under a DOTS programme in Tamil Nadu, India, 2003. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2007 Feb;11(2):161-7. Abstract

Greaves F, Ouyang H, Pefole M, MacCarthy S, Cash RA. Compliance with DOTS diagnosis and treatment recommendations by private practitioners in Kerala, India. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2007 Jan;11(1):110-2. Abstract

2006

Dewan PK, Lal SS, Lönnroth K, Wares F, Uplekar M, Sahu S, Granich R, Chauhan LS. Public-Private Mix in India: Improving Tuberculosis Control Through Intersectoral Partnerships. BMJ 2006; 332: 574-8 Abstract

Floyd K, Arora VK, Murthy KJR, Lönnroth K, Singla N, Akbar Y, Zignol M, Uplekar M. Cost and cost-effectiveness of public and private sector collaboration in tuberculosis control: evidence from India. Bulletin of WHO 2006; 84: 437-45. Abstract

Salim MAH, Uplekar M, Declercq E, Aung M, Daru P, Lönnroth K. Turning liabilities into resources: the informal village doctors and TB control in Bangladesh. Bulletin of WHO 2006; 84: 479-84. Abstract

Maung M, Kluge H, Aye T, Maung W, Noe P, Zaw M, Jost S, Uplekar M, Lönnroth K. Private General Practitioners Contribute to TB Control in Myanmar - Evaluation of a Public-Private Mix Initiative in Mandalay Division. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2006; 10: 982-987 Abstract

Lönnroth K, Uplekar M, Blanc L. Hard gains through soft contracts - productive engagement of private providers in tuberculosis control. Bulletin of WHO 2006; 84: 876-83. Abstract

Balasubramanian R, Rajeswari R, Vijayabhaskara RD, Jaggarajamma K, Gopi PG, Chandrasekaran V, Narayanan PR. A rural public-private partnership model in tuberculosis control in south India. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2006 Dec; 10: 1380-5. Abstract

Sisodia RS, Wares DF, Sahu S, Chauhan LS, Zignol M. Source of retreatment cases under the revised national TB control programme in Rajasthan, India, 2003. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2006 Dec;10(12):1373-9 Abstract

Malmborg R, Mann G, Thomson R, Squire SB. Can public-private collaboration promote tuberculosis case detection among the poor and vulnerable? Bull World Health Organ. 2006 Sep;84(9):752-8. Abstract

Hopewell PC, Pai M, Maher D, Uplekar M, Raviglione MC. International standards for tuberculosis care. Lancet Infect Dis. 2006 Nov;6(11):710-25. Review. Abstract

Shimeles E, Aseffa A, Yamuah L, Tilahun H, Engers H. Knowledge and practice of private practitioners in TB control in Addis Ababa. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2006 Oct;10(10):1172-7. Abstract

Quimbo SA. Enhancing the private provision of care through premiums for ability: the case of tuberculosis care in the Philippines. Health Econ. 2006 Nov;15(11):1237-44. Abstract

Fochsen G, Deshpande K, Diwan V, Mishra A, Diwan VK, Thorson A. Health care seeking among individuals with cough and tuberculosis: a population-based study from rural India. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2006 Sep;10(9):995-1000. Abstract

Watkins RE, Feeney KT, Bakar OA, Plant AJ. Joining the DOTS in Bali: private practitioners' perceptions of tuberculosis control. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2006 Sep;10(9):988-94. Abstract

Sinanovic E, Kumaranayake L. Sharing the burden of TB/HIV? Costs and financing of public-private partnerships for tuberculosis treatment in South Africa. Trop Med Int Health. 2006 Sep;11(9):1466-74. Abstract

Sinanovic E, Kumaranayake L. Quality of tuberculosis care provided in different models of public-private partnerships in South Africa. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2006 Jul;10(7):795-801. Abstract

Sinanovic E, Kumaranayake L. Financing and cost-effectiveness analysis of public-private partnerships: provision of tuberculosis treatment in South Africa. Cost Eff Resour Alloc. 2006 Jun 6;4:11. Abstract

Munsiff SS, Ahuja SD, Li J, Driver CR. Public-private collaboration for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis control in New York City. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2006 Jun;10(6):639-48. Abstract

Tobgay KJ, Sarma PS, Thankappan KR. Predictors of treatment delays for tuberculosis in Sikkim. Natl Med J India. 2006 Mar-Apr;19(2):60-3. Abstract

Peltzer K, Mngqundaniso N, Petros G. A controlled study of an HIV/AIDS/STI/TB intervention with traditional healers in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. AIDS Behav. 2006 Nov;10(6):683-90. Abstract

Rojpibulstit M, Kanjanakiritamrong J, Chongsuvivatwong V. Patient and health system delays in the diagnosis of tuberculosis in Southern Thailand after health care reform. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2006 Apr;10(4):422-8. Abstract

Khan JA, Akbani F, Malik A, Kazi GN, Aslam F, Hussain SF. Effect of providing free sputum microscopy service to private practitioners on case notification to National Tuberculosis Control Program. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. 2005 Oct-Dec;17(4):31-5. Abstract

Krishnan A, Kapoor SK. Involvement of private practitioners in tuberculosis control in Ballabgarh, Northern India. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2006 Mar;10(3):264-9. Abstract

Ouedraogo M, Kouanda S, Boncoungou K, Dembele M, Zoubga ZA, Ouedraogo SM, Coulibaly G. Treatment seeking behaviour of smear-positive tuberculosis patients diagnosed in Burkina Faso. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2006 Feb;10(2):184-7. Abstract

Uchiyama Y, Mao TE, Okada K, Chay S, Kou Soum M, Leng C. An assessment survey of anti-tuberculosis drug management in Cambodia. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2006 Feb;10(2):153-9. Abstract

Roy SK, Roy SK, Bagchi S, Bajpayee A, Pal R, Biswas R. Study of KAP of the private medical practitioners about national disease control programmes. Indian J Public Health. 2005 Oct-Dec;49(4):256-7. Abstract

Anuradha B, Aparna S, Hari Sai Priya V, Vijaya Lakshmi V, Akbar Y, Suman Latha G, Murthy KJ. Prevalence of drug resistance under the DOTS strategy in Hyderabad, South India, 2001-2003. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2006 Jan;10(1):58-62. Abstract

Sheikh K, Porter J, Kielmann K, Rangan S. Public-private partnerships for equity of access to care for tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS: lessons from Pune, India. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2006 Apr;100(4):312-20. EPUB 2006 Jan 24. Abstract

Zafar Ullah AN, Newell JN, Ahmed JU, Hyder MK, Islam A. Government-NGO collaboration: the case of tuberculosis control in Bangladesh. Health Policy Plan. 2006 Mar;21(2):143-55. EPUB 2006 Jan 24. Abstract

Kiwuwa MS, Charles K, Harriet MK. Patient and health service delay in pulmonary tuberculosis patients attending a referral hospital: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health. 2005 Nov 24;5:122. Abstract

Lambert ML, Delgado R, Michaux G, Volz A, Speybroeck N, Van Der Stuyft P. Delays to treatment and out-of-pocket medical expenditure for tuberculosis patients, in an urban area of South America. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2005 Dec;99(8):781-7. Abstract

Articles 2003-2005

2005

Ambe G, Lönnroth K, Dholakia Y, Copreaux J, Zignol M, Borremans N, Uplekar M. Every provider counts!: Effects of a comprehensive public-private mix approach for TB control in a large metropolitan area in India. International Journal of TB and Lung Diseases, 2005; 9: 562-68. Abstract

Kumar MK, Dewan PK, Nair PK, Frieden TR, Sahu S, Wares F, Laserson K, Wells C, Granich R, Chauhan LS. Improved tuberculosis case detection through public-private partnership and laboratory-based surveillance, Kannur District, Kerala, India, 2001-2002. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2005; 9: 870-6. Abstract

Newell JN, Pande SB, Baral SC, Bam DS, Malla P. Leadership, management and technical lessons learnt from a successful public-private partnership for TB control in Nepal. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2005; 9; 1013-17. Abstract

Lambert ML, Delgado R, Michaux G, Vols A, Speybroeck N, Van der Stuyft P. Collaboration between private pharmacies and national tuberculosis programme: an intervention in Bolivia. Trop Med Int Health. 2005;10: 246-50. Abstract

Golub JE, Bur S, Cronin WA, Gange S, Baruch N, Comstock GW, Chaisson RE. Patient and health care system delays in pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosis in a low-incidence state. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2005 Sep;9(9):992-8. Abstract

Auer C, Lagahid JY, Tanner M, Weiss MG. Diagnosis and management of tuberculosis by private practitioners in Manila, Philippines. Health Policy. 2006 Jul;77(2):172-81. EPUB 2005 Aug 15. Abstract

Chakaya JM, Meme H, Kwamanga D, Githui WA, Onyango-Ouma WO, Gicheha C, Karimi F, Mansoer J, Kutwa A. Planning for PPM-DOTS implementation in urban slums in Kenya: knowledge, attitude and practices of private health care providers in Kibera slum, Nairobi. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2005 Apr;9(4):403-8. Abstract

2004

Lönnroth K, Uplekar M, Arora VK, Juvekar S, Lan NTN, Mvaniki D, Pathania V. Public-Private Mix for Improved TB Control – what makes it work? Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2004; 82: 580-86. Abstract

Aguilar R, Garay J, Villatoro M, Billo NE, Caminero JA. Impact of a model training course for private and public specialist physicians in El Salvador. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2004; 8: 473-9. Abstract

Arbelaez MP, Gaviria MB, Franco A, Restrepo R, Hincapie D, Blas E. Tuberculosis control and managed competition in Colombia. Int J Health Plann Manage. 2004; 19: S25-43 Abstract

Macq J, Solis A, Ibarra M, Martiny P, Dujardin B. The cost of medical care and people's health-seeking behaviour before being suspected of tuberculosis in three local health systems, Nicaragua. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2004; 8: 1330-6. Abstract

Rangan SG, Juvekar SK, Rasalpurkar SB, Morankar SN, Joshi AN, Porter JDH. Tuberculosis control in rural India: lessons from public-private collaboration. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2004;8:552-559. Abstract

Newell JN, Pande SB, Baral C, Bam DS, Malla P. Control of tuberculosis in an urban setting in Nepal: public-private partnership. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2004;82:92-98 Abstract

Arora VK, Lönnroth K, Sarin R. Improving case detection of tuberculosis through a public-private partnership. Indian J Chest Diseases and Allied Sciences 2004;46:133-36. Abstract

Arora VK, Gupta R. Private-public mix: a prioritisation under RNTCP--an Indian perspective. Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci. 2004 Jan-Mar;46(1):27-37. Abstract

Ullah AN, Lubben M, Newell JN. A model for effective involvement of private medical practitioners in TB care. Int J Health Plann Manage. 2004;19 :227-45. Abstract

Lambert ML, Delgado R, Michaux G, Volz A, Van der Stuyft P. Tuberculosis control and the private health sector in Bolivia: a survey of pharmacies. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2004; 8: 1325-9. Abstract

2003

Uplekar M. Involving private health care providers in delivery of TB care: global strategy. Tuberculosis 2003;83:156-164. Abstract

Uplekar M. Public-private mix for DOTS: demanding, but delay will only hamper TB control. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2003;7(12):1113-4. Abstract

Montagu D, Elzinga G. Innovations in access to TB and HIV/AIDS care in sub-Saharan Africa: dynamic engagement of the private sector. Appl Health Econ Health Policy, 2003; 2: 175-80. Abstract

Mandal PP, Bhatia V. Involvement of private practitioners in RNTCP. J Indian Med Assoc. 2003 Mar; 101:159-60. Abstract

Caminero JA, Billo NE. Involving private practitioners and chest physicians in control of tuberculosis. Tuberculosis 2003;83:148-155. Abstract

Caminero JA. Is the DOTS strategy sufficient to achieve tuberculosis control in low- and middle-income countries? 2. Need for interventions among private physicians, medical specialists and scientific societies. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2003; 7: 623-30. Abstract

Mantala MJ. Public-private mix DOTS in the Philippines. Tuberculosis 2003;83:173-76. Abstract

Rangan S, Ambe G, Borremans N, Zallocco D, Porter J. The Mumbai experience in building field level partnerships for DOTS implementation. Tuberculosis 2003;83:165-172. Abstract

Rangan S. The public-private mix in India's Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme -- an update. J Indian Med Assoc. 2003;101: 161-3. Abstract

Shah SK, Sadiq H, Khalil M, Noor A, Rasheed G, Shah SM, Ahmad N. Do private doctors follow national guidelines for managing pulmonary tuberculosis in Pakistan? East Mediterr Health J. 2003; 9: 776-88. Abstract

Shirzadi MR, Majdzadeh R, Pourmalek F, Naraghi K. Adherence of the private sector to national tuberculosis guidelines in the Islamic Republic of Iran, 2001-02. East Mediterr Health J. 2003; 9: 796-804. Abstract

Vyas RM, Small PM, DeRiemer K. The private-public divide: impact of conflicting perceptions between the private and public health care sectors in India. Int J Tuberc Lund Dis 2003;7:543-549. Abstract

Portero LJ, Rubio M. Private practitioners and tuberculosis control in the Philippines: strangers when they meet? Tropical Medicine and International Health 2003;8:329-35. Abstract

Khan JA, Hussain SF. Anti-tuberculous drug prescribing: doctors' compliance at a private teaching hospital in Pakistan. Tropical Doctor 2003;33:94-96. Abstract

Khan J, Malik A, Hussain H, Ali NK, Akbani F, Hussain SJ, Kazi GN, Hussain SF. Tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment practices of private physicians in Karachi, Pakistan. East Mediterr Health J. 2003; 9: 769-75. Abstract

Lönnroth K, Karlsson M, Lan NT, Buu TN, Dieu TT. Referring TB suspects from private pharmacies to the National Tuberculosis Programme: experiences from two districts in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2003;7(12):1147-53. Abstract

Quy HT, Lönnroth K, Lan NT, Buu TN. Treatment results among tuberculosis patients treated by private lung specialists involved in a public-private mix project in Vietnam. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2003;7(12):1139-46. Abstract

Arora VK, Sarin R, Lönnroth K. Feasibility and effectiveness of a public-private mix project for improved TB control in Delhi, India. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2003;7(12):1131-8. Abstract

Quy HT, Lan NT, Lönnroth K, Buu TN, Dieu TT, Hai LT. Public-private mix for improved TB control in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam: an assessment of its impact on case detection. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2003;7(5):464-71. Abstract

Lönnroth K, Thuong LM, Lambregts K, Quy HT, Diwan VK. Private tuberculosis care provision associated with poor treatment outcome: comparative study of a semi-private lung clinic and the NTP in two urban districts in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. National Tuberculosis Programme. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2003;7(2):165-71. Abstract

Suleiman BA, Houssein AI, Mehta F, Hinderaker SG. Do doctors in north-western Somalia follow the national guidelines for tuberculosis management? East Mediterr Health J. 2003; 9: 789-95. Abstract

Ayaya SO, Sitienei J, Odero W, Rotich J. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices of private medical practitioners on tuberculosis among HIV/AIDS patients in Eldoret, Kenya. East Afr Med J. 2003 Feb;80(2):83-90. Abstract

 

Articles 2002 and previous

2002

Hurtig AK, Pande SB, Baral SC, Newell J, Porter JD, Bam DS. Linking private and public sectors in tuberculosis treatment in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. Health Policy Plan 2002;17(1):78-89. Abstract

Enwuru CA, Idigbe EO, Ezeobi NV, Otegbeye AF. Care-seeking behavioural patterns, awareness and diagnostic processes in patients with smear- and culture-positive pulmonary tuberculosis in Lagos, Nigeria. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2002 Nov-Dec;96(6):614-6. Abstract

Newell J. The implications for TB control of the growth in numbers of private practitioners in developing countries. Bull World Health Organ. 2002;80(10):836-7. EPUB 2002 Nov 28. Abstract

Brown P. Private doctors must improve their treatment of tuberculosis, says WHO. BMJ. 2002 Dec 7;325(7376):1320. Abstract

Thomas C. A literature review of the problems of delayed presentation for treatment and non-completion of treatment for tuberculosis in less developed countries and ways of addressing these problems using particular implementations of the DOTS strategy. J Manag Med. 2002;16(4-5):371-400 Abstract

Rajeswari R, Chandrasekaran V, Suhadev M, Sivasubramaniam S, Sudha G, Renu G. Factors associated with patient and health system delays in the diagnosis of tuberculosis in South India. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2002 Sep;6(9):789-95 Abstract

Mills A, Brugha R, Hanson K, McPake B. What can be done about the private health sector in low-income countries? Bull World Health Organ. 2002;80(4):325-30. Article [pdf 73kb]

Rajeswari R, Balasubramanian R, Bose MS, Sekar L, Rahman F Private pharmacies in tuberculosis control--a neglected link. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2002 Feb;6(2):171-3. Abstract

2001

Uplekar M, Pathania V, Raviglione M. Private practitioners and public health: weak links in tuberculosis control. Lancet 2001;358(9285):912-6. Abstract

Lönnroth K, Thuong LM, Linh PD, Diwan VK. Utilization of private and public health-care providers for tuberculosis symptoms in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Health Policy Plan 2001;16(1):47-54. Abstract

Lönnroth K, Tran TU, Thuong LM, Quy HT, Diwan V. Can I afford free treatment?: Perceived consequences of health care provider choices among people with tuberculosis in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Soc Sci Med 2001;52(6):935-48. Abstract

Murthy KJ, Frieden TR, Yazdani A, Hreshikesh P. Public-private partnership in tuberculosis control: experience in Hyderabad, India. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2001;5(4):354-9. Abstract

Nshuti L. Neuhauser D, Johnson JL, Adatu F. Whalen CC. Public and private providers' quality of care for tuberculosis patients in Kampala, Uganda. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2001;5:1006-12. Abstract

2000

Uplekar M. Private health care. Soc Sci Med 2000;51(6):897-904 Abstract

Quelapio ID, Mira NRC, Abelada MR. Directly Observed Therapy - Short-course (DOTS) at the Makati medical Center. The Philippine Journal of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 2000;29:80-86. Abstract [pdf 139kb]

Hurtig AK, Pande SB, Baral SC, Porter JD, Bam DS. Anti-tuberculosis treatment in private pharmacies, Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2000;4(8):730-6. Abstract

Lönnroth K, Lambregts K, Nhien DT, Quy HT, Diwan VK. Private pharmacies and tuberculosis control: a survey of case detection skills and reported anti-tuberculosis drug dispensing in private pharmacies in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2000;4(11):1052-9. Abstract

Hanson C, Kibuga D. Effective tuberculosis control and health sector reforms in Kenya: challenges of an increasing tuberculosis burden and opportunities through reform. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2000 Jul;4(7):627-32. Abstract

1999

Netterop E, Wolffers I. The role of the privatisation process on tuberculosis control in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Soc Sci Med 1999; 48: 1589-98. Abstract

Olle-Goig JE, Cullity JE, Vargas R. A survey of prescribing patterns for tuberculosis treatment amongst doctors in a Bolivian city. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 1999; 3: 74-8. Abstract

Hong YP, Kim SJ, Lee EG, Lew WJ, Bai JY, Treatment of bacillary pulmonary tuberculosis at the chest clinics in the private sector in Korea, 1993. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 1999; 3: 695-702. Abstract

Zaw W, Sein W, Aung, TN et al. Case load and treatment outcome of pulmonary tuberculosis patients with DOTS strategy implemented by general practitioners in Shwepyitha township. Myanmar Medical Journal 1999; 43:8-12.

Lönnroth K, Thuong LM, Linh PD, Diwan VK. Delay and discontinuity--a survey of TB patients' search of a diagnosis in a diversified health care system. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 1999;3(11):992-1000. Abstract

Hurtig AK, Pande SB, Baral SC, Porter JD, Bam DS. Sputum examination for acid-fast bacilli in private laboratories, Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 1999;3(11):1009-14. Abstract

1998

Uplekar M, Juvekar S, Morankar S, Rangan S, Nunn P. Tuberculosis patients and practitioners in private clinics in India. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 1998;2:324-329. Abstract

Singla N, Sharma PP, Singla R, Jain RC. Survey of knowledge attitudes and practice for tuberculosis among general practitioners in Delhi, India. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 1998; 2: 384-89. Abstract

Lönnroth K, Thuong LM, Linh PD, Diwan V. Risks and benefits of private health care: exploring physicians' views on private health care in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Health Policy 1998;45(2):81-97. Abstract

Jaramillo E. Pulmonary tuberculosis and health-seeking behaviour: how to get a delayed diagnosis in Cali, Colombia. Tropical Medicine and International Health 1998; 3: 138-44. Abstract

1997

Arif K, Ali SA, Amanullah S, Siddiqui I, Khan JA, Nayani P. Physician compliance with national tuberculosis treatment guidelines: a university hospital study. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 1997; 2: 225-30. Abstract

Huebner RE, Moeti N, Binkin NJ, Rumisha DW. Survey of physician use of radiography and sputum smear microscopy for tuberculosis diagnosis and follow up in Botswana. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 1997; 1: 333-8. Abstract

1996

Uplekar M, Juvenkar SD, Parande DB, Dalal et al. Tuberculosis management in private practice and its implications. Indian Journal of Tuberculosis, 1996; 43: 19-22. Abstract

Grover NK. Role of private practitioners in tuberculosis control in India. Journal of the Indian Medical Association, 1996; 94: 370-71. Abstract

1995

Hong YP, Kwon DW, Kim SC et al. Survey of knowledge, attitudes and practices for tuberculosis among general practitioners. Tubercle and Lung Disease 1995; 76: 431-35. Abstract

Juvekar SK, Morankar DB, Dalal SG, et al. Social and operational determinants of patient behaviour in lung tuberculosis. Indian Journal of Tuberculosis 1995; 42: 87-94. Abstract

1993

Uplekar MW, Rangan S. Private doctors and tuberculosis control in India. Tuber Lung Dis 1993;74(5):332-7. Abstract

1992

Mori T, Shimao T, Byoung Won Jin, Sung Jin Kim. Analysis of case-finding process of tuberculosis in Korea. Tubercle and Lung Disease 1992; 73: 225-31. Abstract

1991

Uplekar MW, Shepard DS. Treatment of tuberculosis by private general practitioners in India. Tubercle 1991;72(4):284-90. Abstract

1984

Hong Kong Chest Service/British Medical Research Council. Survey of the previous investigation and treatment by private practitioners of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis attending government chest clinics in Hong Kong. Tubercl 1984; 65: 161-171. Abstract